The Balanced Scorecard is a revolutionary framework which translates a company's
vision and strategy into a coherent set of performance measures. In addition, it is a tool
to channel the energies, abilities, and specific knowledge held by employees toward
achieving long-term goals. 'A landmark achievement.'--Michael Hammer, author of
Reengineering the Corporation.
from US governemt
Cause and Effect Diagram
Chaos Theory and Complexity
...and Healthcare Management by
Control Points and Check
Probably the most important and least understood aspect of TQM. They pervade
every TQM system, method, and approach as shown by the table below.
The control point is the desired result of a
process. In understanding variation and SPC, the control point is some
aspect of the process output that we measure and use a control chart to assure statistical stability. Once
statistically stable, we can only improve the process outputs by more tightly controlling
process inputs, since we cannot directly improve process outputs themselves. These process
inputs are called check points.
This mechanical concept is carried over to business processes in TQM. Unlike
other management approaches such as "Management by Objectives (MBO), TQM manages by
both objectives and the way in which we achieve them. It
is as important to follow the standards as it is to achieve the results. Why? Let's say a
business objective is achieved (such as reduced costs) because of outside uncontrollable
influences such as the price of oil going down. Competitors will receive the same benefit
and so there will be no net market gain. If both process and results are pursued, than the
company might actually realize a better cost reduction that the competition. Conversely,
if the cost of oil goes up, all competitors will be effected, but the TQM company will
have offsetting gains from following the business process as well.
The same concept can be extended to the roles of managers. Each manager has both
control points and check points on the job. At the higher management level, the control
points are policy targets and the check points policy means to achieve them. The manager's
check points may become the subordinate's control points.
Both control points and check points should contain direction (improve,
decrease, etc.) + indicator (quality, customer satisfaction, etc.) + target
value (how much, #, %, etc.) + time limit (by when).
Creativity , See also Invention.
deBono, Edward and Lateral Thinking
Management Institute Journal
Index of books
on Creativity Website
National Center for
Critical Chain Project
Larry Leach's web site on Critical
Chain Project Management
Management by Richard Zultner
Cross Functional Teams
Multi-disciplinary teams assembled often to focus on a specific project
requiring multiple skills and perspectives. This is not the same as Cross-Function Management.
State University Continuing Education
Thinking Tools (DATT)
how to join.
Six Thinking Hats
Deming, W. Edwards
- From Out of the Crisis, Deming gives his guidelines
Homepage at MIT
- Deming Institute
- Deming Prize
One of the top Quality Awards in the world today. It is given annually to
companies that achieve an ever invreasing rigorous level of quality.
Out of the Crisis
One of Deming's definitive books.
System of Profound Knowledge
Design Management Institute
Jose State University Continuing Education
software for AHP.
Force Field Analysis
Gage Study and Capability
Guiding Principles, Vision, Mission
Guiding Principles should reflect the philosophy of the company throughout its
life. It sets boundaries on what activities will be acceptable. Issues of contribution to
society, respect for environment and people, commitment to quality for customers,
suppliers, employees, pride in workmanship, etc. These are superordinate in that they
transcend all other issues. They are purposely fuzzy so that they can be held to under any
and all circumstances.
Definitions by Satoshi Nakui
- One of America's most quality conscious companies. Click here for their approach to PDCA and
Hoshin software by Pete Babich. For a demo, click here.
- Comparison of MBNQA and ISO 9000
standards by Marc Smith at Caymen Systems International.
ISO 9000:2000, ISO 14000 website at the
Society for Quality (ASQ).
Society for Quality
This organization represents the academic community in the Japanese quality
movement. Based on the 40th Symposium of the JSQ, TQC Systemization Committee, I have
updated and added some North American approaches to their basic program. Click here for details.
Japan Standards Association
JSA 10 Week TQM Course
JUSE. See Union of Japanese
Scientists and Engineers
This is the grouping method that creates the Affinity
Diagram. Developed and trademarked by Japanese cultural anthropologist Kawakita Jiro,
there are several methods for organizing data based on the inherent structures of the data
itself. This method has proven most useful in uncovering the latent structures of customer
needs in QFD.
on state of US industry.
on Lanchester by John Schuler, Manager of Equipment Programs, Semiconductor Equipment and
New Lanchester Strategy by
Shinichi Yano. 3 Volume comic books explaining the use and details of this strategy
for marketing, sales, and new product development. Considered by many to be a significant
reason for Japanese domination of certain markets.
Volume 1 explains the
Volume 2 is strategies for
Volume 3 is strategies for
Strategy at work in the hard drive market.
Review or join the Learning
Organization Mail list.
Organization Home Page.
by Peter Senge.
Term Business Plan
Malcolm Baldrige National Quality
- Click here to
download a copy of the latest version of the MBNQA booklet. It is in Adobe Acrobat
Portable Document Format or *.pdf. This format can be read on any platform with an Adobe
Acrobat reader. To obtain a free copy of the Adobe Acrobat reader for your type of
computer, please click here.
Comparison of MBNQA and ISO 9000
standards by Marc Smith at Cayman Systems International.
Instructor for Sections 001 and 002 of ENG 401, TQM at the University of
Michigan College of Engineering. For details about Mazur's background, papers and
publications, and how to contact him, click here.
Mission describes the activities for achieving the Vision. The Mission is the
cause and the Vision the effect. The Mission statement may also contain verb (design,
train, maintain, etc.) + object (system, strategy, etc.) + target value (how
much, #, %, etc. This is optional) + time limit (should be same time frame
Co-founder of Quality Function Deployment with Yoji Akao.
Co-editor of QFD: The
Customer-Driven Approach to Quality Planning and Deployment. [Translated by Glenn
Mazur] Asian Productivity Organization. ISBN 92-833-1122-1 The bible of QFD.
One of the sharpest of the the young Japanese TQM consultants.
Nominal Group Technique
- Originally Shewhart's Plan-Do-Check-Act or the application
of the scientific method to engineering and management. Deming later changed Check to
Study. A look-before-you-leap approach to standardization or maintenance (Standardize-Do-Check-Act),
solving problems and improvement or reactive mode (Check-Act-Plan-Do)
and achieving opportunities and new developments or proactive mode (Plan-Do-Check-Act).
- PDSA at Hewlett-Packard.
- Detailed explanation
from the Deming Library at Clemson University (zipped).
Japanese approach to mistake proofing. Primarily activities for front-line
employees empowered to make changes to their work processes to enchance accuracy, safety,
Grout's Pokayoke homepage
Problem solving methods
QFD (Quality Function Deployment)
QFD Software. A free demo of QFD
Capture is available from ITI.
Discussion list: how to join
QFD Master Class
QFD Symposia Transactions
(papers and case studies)
QFD Demo Software
QFD Designer from
Qualisoft. Integrates many modern hyperlink and web features.
Nicely thought out.
QFD Capture from ITI. A sophisticated
commercial QFD software.
Japanese and European Software
evaluating QFD software was published in 1997 by the QFD Institute of Germany.
QFD Trial from Prof. Shindo
or Yamanashi University, winner of the 1997 Akao Prize for Excellence in QFD. This is a 30
day beta that does several linked matrices and the Quantification Method III, the first
time available in English.
QFD 2000 from TQS in England
has a 30 day demo that supports several QFD deployments.
Portuguese QFD Software.
Akao, Yoji, ed. 1990. QUALITY
FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT: Integrating Customer Requirements into Product Design [Translated
by Glenn Mazur] Productivity Press. ISBN 0-915299-41-0 The best collection of
advanced QFD case studies.
Cohen, Lou. 1995. Quality Function Deployment: How to Make QFD Work for You.
Addison-Wesely. ISBN 0-201-63330-2
Daetz, Doug et al. 1995. Customer Integration: The Quality Function
Deployment (QFD) Leader's Guide for Decision Making. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN
Mazur, Glenn. Comprehensive
QFD for Products.
Mazur, Glenn. Comprehensive
QFD for Services.
Mazur, Glenn. QFD
for Small Business.
Mazur, Glenn. QFD for Food Products.
Mizuno, Shigeru and Yoji Akao, ed. 1994. QFD: The Customer-Driven Approach to
Quality Planning and Deployment. [Translated by Glenn Mazur] Asian Productivity
Organization. ISBN 92-833-1122-1 The bible of QFD.
QFD Institute. 1989-present annual editions of Transaction of the Symposia
on QFD. Click here for contents and title
search function. Annual proceedings, case studies, and methodology papers on
QFD and related topics from the QFD Symposia.
Revelle, Jack et al. 1998. The QFD Handbook. John Wiley & Sons.
Shillito, M. Larry. 1994. Advanced QFD: Linking Technology to Market and
Company Needs. Wiley-Interscience. ISBN 0-471-03377-4
- Comparison of MBNQA and ISO 9000
standards by Marc Smith at Caymen Systems International.
QS-9000 website at American
Society for Quality (ASQ).
Relations Diagram (Interrelationship Digraph)
Results Focus Tools
See Statistical Process Control.
The simplest and possibly best definition of risk is: The possibility of loss,
injury, disadvantage or destruction. Apply this definition to the issues of program
management and you have the starting point for successful risk management.
Press releases from suppliers and automakers regarding new products and other
news, courtesy of the Society for Automotive Engineers.
Don't commit an "ordinal sin."
- Father of statistcial quality control.
American Society for
Quality Six Sigma Forum website
Quality Maturity Model
The Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie-Mellon University has developed a
5-stage model for determining the degree of quality in software development. This is an
important step, since unlike a hardware or service product where defects are more easily
visible and detectable, software defects may not emerge until an information system is up
and running and some untested convergence of data or circumstances occurs. Thus, the
software maturity model measures not the quality of the software, but the quality of the
software development process - how the people, processes, systems, compliance, etc. work.
This is truly quality assurance at its best.
Summary of the
Software Quality Maturity Model
Process Perspectives Forum
Statistical Quality Control
Statistical Process Control
On-line software demos from
Free software demos from IQD.
Suggestions Systems (Teian)
Analysis of people processes and work to determine who, what, when, where, why,
how, how measured, etc. Used in:
- Daily Management to design organization activities to
- Hoshin Management to specify activities needed to
achieve strategic initiatives.
- Cross-Function Management to create organization-wide
communication links to improve quality, reduce costs, comply with or accelerate delivery
schedule, comply with enviromental standards, improve quality of work life, safety, etc.
- Quality Function Deployment (QFD) for service
applications to determine job descriptions, schedules, floor plans, equipment, and work
standards for new service products.
for a detailed report on Task Deployment.
Team Memory Jogger
A collection of the some of the best tips and practices on team skills.
Published by GOAL/QPC in this handy pocket-size book. Click
here for details and ordering
Theory of Constraints
Larry Leach's TOC Website:
Tools of Theory of Constraints.
David Schucavage's "Crazy About
Matchstick and Die Roll
Inventory. On-line simulation from The Goal by Goldratt and Cox. This
demonstrates that in a system of sequential dependent processes, throughput is not the
average of the all the process steps. Gains (above average) in one step can be lost by
subsequent steps performing below average. Delays, however will accumulate. The effect on
project management is the theme of Goldratt's later book, Critical Chain.
Total Quality Management (TQM)
TQM is management and control activities based on the
leadership of top management and based on the involvement of all employees and all
departments from planning and development to sales and service. These management and
control activities focus on quality assurance by which those qualities which satisfy the
customer are built into products and services during the above processes and then offered
to consumers. --JSQC
Other TQM Websites
TRIZ (Theory of Inventive
Mazur's at University of Michigan
John B. Opfell
The TRIZ Journal
Union of Japanese Scientists and
- Unorganisation: Downstructuring towards Collapsible Corporations is all about how
economic, social and political institutions dominate individuals. This domination has
adverse affects because managers and politicians only partially understand the new
unorganised world and have not changed their behaviour to adjust to it.
Value Engineering, Value
- Some interesting shareware programs have been developed to demonstrate the
effects of variation on a system.
Click here to download and evaluate a program called vari.zip or its
new version tennis.zip.
Another program , funnel.zip,
animates Deming's funnel experiment. These are zipped (compressed) files.
If you do not already have the program to unzip these files, click here to download pkunzip. If you can't get this software to work,
read Variation and Accuracy
from SPC Essentials
and Productivity Improvement: A Manufacturing Approach.
A case study about variation and Deming's 14 points. Click here.
Vision and Mission have a cause and effect relationship. Vision should reflect
what the organization sees for itself 5-10 years down the road. The short time frame helps
assure that the organization revitalizes itself every decade or so. The Vision statement
should contain direction (improve, decrease, etc.) + indicator (quality,
customer satisfaction, etc.) + target value (how much, #, %, etc.) + time limit (by
Voice of Customer
World Wide Web Editing
Software. I love Two Cows for
getting shareware and careware programs. Here are some examples that I hope you will enjoy
using to build and publish your World Wide Web Site.
- Windows 95. Arachnophilia http://www.arachnoid.com/arachnophilia/
- Windows 3.x. Hot Dog http://www.sausage.com/
- Mcintosh. BBEdit Lite http://www.barebones.com/freeware.html
Three Japanese words that mean waste (muda), strain (muri),
and discrepancy (mura). Here's my version.
|Look for muddling, muscling,
or murkiness in
Five Japanese words that describe workplace and individual cleanliness
- Straighten up your workplace or desk. (Seiri)
- Sort out your equipment. (Seiton)
- Sweep and clean your workplace. (Seiso)
- Spotlessly maintain your appearance and character. (Seiketsu)
- Self-discipline to follow rules, procedures, and standards. (Shitsuke)
A simple, but effective way to get to the root of a problem. Keep asking why at
each successive level of detail. Ex.
- Why is there oil on the floor? There's a leaky forklift.
- Why does the forklift have a leak? It has a bad hydraulic hose.
- Why is the hydraulic hose bad? It is frayed at the fitting end and so oil leaks
out under high pressure, such as lifting heavy loads.
- Why is the fitting end frayed? The hose is getting too old and soft.
- Why has it not been replaced? We have no one who is specifically
responsible for equipment maintenance.
7 Management and
Planning Tools (7MP)
7 Product Planning Tools (7PP)
These tools, when used in the manner prescribed by the JUSE, allow product
planners to apply QFD to totally new products. While the
tools are commonly used individually, the power of the 7PP tools is their flow and
systematic approach. The tools are:
- Group Interview
- Concept Checklist
- Concept Table
- Quality Table (House of Quality).